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The book editor would like to thank the Rio Office of the Library of Congress — particularly Carmen Muricy, Senior Acquisitions Specialist; Pamela Howard-Reguindin, Field Direc- tor; and James C.

None of these indi- viduals, is, however, in any way responsible for the work or points of view of the authors.

Particular attention is devoted to the people who make up the society, their origins, dominant beliefs and values, their common inter- ests and the issues on which they are divided, the nature and extent of their involvement with national institutions, and their attitudes toward each other and toward their social system and political order.

The authors seek to provide a basic understanding of the observed society, striving for a dynamic rather than a static portrayal.

The authors are grateful to individuals in various agencies of the United States government, international organizations, pri- vate institutions, including nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Brazil, and Brazilian diplomatic offices who offered their time, special knowledge, or research facilities and materi- als to provide information and perspective.

The book editor would also like to thank Professor Roberto Patricio Korzeniewicz of the Depart- ment of Sociology at the University of Maryland at College Park for contributing the discussion of gender in chapter 2, The Society and Its Environment.

(Continued) Selected Acronyms and Abbreviations Acronym or Abbreviation Organization or Term IEM IEN IMF IMPA INAMPS In esc In fr aero INPA INPE INT Intelsat Interpol IPAM IPEA IPEN IPES IPRI IPT IRBr IRD ISA ITA LAFTA LAIA LIBOR Light LNA LNCC LNLS Instituto de Engenharia Mecanica (Institute of Mechanical Engi- neering) Instituto de Engenharia Nuclear (Nuclear Engineering Institute) International Monetary Fund Instituto de Matematica Pura e Aplicada (Institute of Pure and Applied Mathematics) Instituto Nacional de Assistencia Medica da Previdencia Social (National Institute for Medical Assistance and Social Security) Instituto de Estudos Socio-Economicos (Institute of Socioeco- nomic Studies) Empresa Brasileira de Infraestructura Aeroportuaria (Brazilian Airport Infrastructure Firm) Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazonia (National Institute of Amazon Research) Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas Espaciais (National Institute of Space Research) Instituto Nacional de Tecnologia (National Institute of Technol- ogy) International Telecommunications Satellite Organization International Criminal Police Organization Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia (Environmental Research Institute of Amazonia) Instituto de Pesquisa Economica Aplicada (Applied Economic Research Institute) Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (Institute for Nuclear and Energy Research) Instituto de Pesquisas e Estudos Sociais (Institute for Research and Social Studies) Instituto das Pesquisas das Relacoes Internacionais (International Relations Research Institute) Instituto de Pesquisas Tecnologicas (Institute for Technological Research) Instituto Rio Branco (Rio Branco Institute) Instituto de Radioprotecao e Dosimetria (Radiation Protection and Dosimetry Institute) Instituto Socio-Ambiental (Social-Environmental Institute) Instituto Tecnologico de Aeronautica (Aeronautical Technology Institute) Latin American Free Trade Association Latin American Integration Association London Interbank Offered Rate Servicos de Eletricidade S.

He was assisted by the firm of Maryland Mapping and Graphics, which prepared the book's maps and charts based on the editor's drafts. Science and Technology 413 Simon Schwartzman and Maria Helena Magalhdes Castro HISTORICAL EVOLUTION 417 Colonial Science 417 Imperial Science 417 Applied Science in Agriculture and Health 418 The Search for Alternatives 419 Science and Technology as Modernization, 1945-64 420 The Great Leap Forward, 1968-79 423 Science and Technology as a Pressure Group, 1979-90 426 THE COMPUTER INDUSTRY POLICY 427 SCIENCE FOR INDUSTRIAL COMPETITIVENESS 428 ADMINISTRATION OF SCIENCE AND TECHNOLOGY . 430 The Ministry of Science and Technology 430 National Council for Scientific and Techno- logical Development 431 The Funding Authority for Studies and Projects . 433 The Coordination of High-Level Personnel Training 433 Other Activities by the Federal Government 433 Science and Technology in the States 434 The Sao Paulo Science and Technology System. Sources of information included books, journals, other period- icals and monographs, official reports of governments and international organizations, and numerous interviews by the authors with Brazilian government officials and experts in aca- demia and nongovernmental organizations (NGOs) in Brazil.

The cover illustration is based on a nineteenth-century illus- tration from Antonio Bento, Abstrafdo na arte dos indios brasileiros, Rio de Janeiro: SPALA Editora, 1979. 168 Stagnation and Spectacular Growth, 1962-80 171 Stagnation, Inflation, and Crisis, 1981-94 174 THE LABOR FORCE AND INCOME LEVELS 1 80 Employment and Earnings 180 Inequality and Poverty 185 STRUCTURE OF PRODUCTION 187 Agriculture 187 Livestock 190 Fishing 191 Industry 192 Mining 193 Energy , 195 The Services Sector 201 Donald V. Chapter bibliographies appear at the end of the book; brief comments on sources recommended for further reading appear at the end of each chapter.

VI Contents Page Foreword iii Acknowledgments v Preface xv Table A. Chronology of Important Events xxvii Country Profile xxxiii Introduction liii Chapter 1. Mc Cann THE INDIGENOUS POPULATION 6 THE COLONIAL ERA, 1500-1815 9 Frontier Expansion That Shaped Brazil 9 Early Colonization 14 French and Dutch Incursions 21 Gold Mining Displaces Cane Farming 23 The Transition to Kingdom Status 32 THE KINGDOM OF PORTUGAL AND BRAZIL, 1815-21 . 34 THE EMPIRE, 1822-89 s 37 Emperor Pedro I, 1822-31 37 The Regency Era, 1831-40 43 The Second Empire, 1840-89 44 THE REPUBLICAN ERA, 1889-1985 54 The Old or First Republic, 1 889-1 930 55 The Era of Getulio Vargas, 1930-54 67 The Post-Vargas Republic, 1954-64 72 The Military Republic, 1964-85 78 Chapter 2. Sawyer THE PHYSICAL SETTING 90 vii Size and Location 90 Geology, Geomorphology, and Drainage 91 Soils and Vegetation 95 Climate 97 Geographic Regions 99 The Environment 103 POPULATION 109 Population Size and Distribution 109 Mortality 110 Fertility Ill Migration and Urbanization 114 SOCIAL STRUCTURE 115 Social Classes 115 Gender 118 Youth 121 The Elderly 122 Race and Ethnicity 122 Amerindians 124 Rural Groups 126 CULTURAL UNITY AND DIVERSITY. Certain other portions of the text, however, have been updated.

126 The Brazilian Way 128 Language 130 Mass Communications 131 Family and Kinship 132 RELIGION 132 Roman Catholicism 132 Other Religions 134 HEALTH STATUS AND HEALTH CARE 136 Jaklen Muoi Tuyen Indicators of Health 136 Infectious and Chronic Diseases 137 Nutrition and Diet 139 The Health Care System 1 39 Health Professionals and Resources 142 PUBLIC HEALTH AND WELFARE 1 43 Social Security 143 Sanitation and Public Utilities 143 Housing 144 EDUCATION 144 Literacy 145 Vlll Primary and Secondary Schools 146 Colleges and Universities 147 Principal Research Libraries 149 SOCIAL CONFLICT AND PARTICIPATION 149 Conflict and Nonviolence 149 Growth of Social and Environmental Movements. The Introduction discusses significant events that have occurred since the completion of research, the Coun- try Profile includes updated information as available, and the Bibliography lists recently published sources thought to be par- ticularly helpful to the reader. Selected Acronyms and Abbreviations Acronym or Abbreviation Organization or Term ABACC ABAL ABC ABDD ABERT ABI ABIN ABINEE ABONG ADESG AEB AFA AGU AIDS ALADI ALALC ALCSA AMAN ANC AP Arena Avibras Bacen Banerj Banespa BB BNDE BNDES BNH Agenda Brasileiro-Argentina de Contabilidade e Controle de Materials Nucleares (Brazilian-Argentine Agency for Account- ing and Control of Nuclear Materials) Associacao Brasileira de Alummio (Brazilian Aluminum Associa- don) Agencia Brasileira de Cooperacao (Brazilian Cooperadon Agency) Associacao Brasileira de Defesa da Democracia (Brazilian Associa- don for the Defense of Democracy) Associacao Brasileira das Emissoras de Radio e Televisao (Brazil- ian Association of Radio and Television Stations) Agencia Brasileira de Inteligencia (Brazilian Intelligence Agency) Agencia Brasileira de Inteligencia (Brazilian Intelligence Agency) Associacao Brasileira da Industria Eletro-Eletronica (Brazilian Electro-Electronic Industry Associadon) Associacao Brasileira de Organizacoes Nao-Governementais (Bra- zilian Association of Nongovernmental Organizations) Associacoes dos Diplomados da Escola Superior de Guerra (Asso- ciations of War College Graduates) Agencia Espacial Brasileira (Brazilian Space Agency) Academia da Forca Aerea (Air Force Academy) Advocacia-Geral da Uniao (Office of the Federal Attorney Gene- ral) acquired immune deficiency syndrome Associacao Latino-Americana de Integracao (Latin American Integradon Associadon-LAIA) Asociacion Latinoamericana de Libre Comercio (Latin American Free Trade Association-LAFTA) Area de Livre Comercio Sul-Americana (South American Free Trade Association) Academia Militar das Agulhas Negras (Agulhas Negras Military Academy) Assembleia Nacional Constituinte (Nadonal Constituent Assem- bly) Acao Popular (Popular Action) Alianca Renovadora Nacional (Nadonal Renewal Alliance) Avibras Industria Aeroespacial SA.