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Second, the Citadel settlement covered the period between June 2008 and January 2010.

We state clearly, “Nor do our results rule out the possibility that latency arbitrage arising from stale SIP quotes might have been prevalent in the quite recent past (e.g., 2014), for the simple reason that our data are not available until mid-2015.” We additionally state in our conclusion that, “Because our data commence in August 2015, we emphasize that these findings may very well reflect a new market environment in which the HFT strategies depicted in Flash Boys are less prevalent than in the past.” Finally, the central research question we pose in our paper is whether SIP latency arbitrage strategies are sufficiently profitable that they can explain the current arms race in trading speed.

Overall, our analysis suggests SIP reporting latencies generate remarkably little scope for exploiting the informational asymmetries available to subscribers to exchanges’ direct data feeds, regardless of whether trading is targeted at liquidity takers (at issue in Citadel’s settlement) or at liquidity providers (at issue in the recent wave of exchange proposals for speed bumps).

Even though our sample period commences after Citadel ceased using Fast Fill and Smart Provide, we fail to see how the SEC’s factual findings reveal a trading environment where Fast Fill and Smart Provide were sufficiently profitable to Citadel to justify large scale investments in trading speed. Dolgopolov notes, total trades affected by these strategies were well under 1 percent of Citadel’s trading volume from June 2008 through January 2010.

Beginning in the late 1800s, plant breeders collected various small-fruited, wild-growing apples from around the world and selectively bred them for ornamental value and disease resistance without regard for fruit taste.

After seeds mature, many fruits lose their bitter taste because tannin levels drop and sugar levels rise – as well as nutritional value.

Some of the flowering crabapples are more resistant to the major apple diseases – fireblight, apple scab, and cedar apple rust – than many full-sized apples and our native crabapples.

However, many of these disease-resistant varieties have tiny fruits, or don’t drop their fruits, so they have little value as deer food.

Most problematic for deer hunters is the long list of improved crabapple varieties from which to choose.

After much study, I was able to develop some advice on how to select improved crabapple varieties when shopping tree nurseries and planning a deer orchard.